Key outcomes:

  • Safe working environment
  • Government regulations satisfied
  • Design optimisation of pollution controls

Industrial facilities are one of the predominant sources of air pollution, which includes particulate matter (such as PM2.5 and PM10), aerosol and gaseous pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), dioxins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many of these pollutants are carcinogenic and contribute to other chronic health issues like respiratory and skin illnesses. It is therefore important to effectively control pollutants at the source and achieve safe working environment for workers as well as nearby residents. Regulators work with businesses to ensure they comply with allowable emissions.

Process flow showing the exhaust from an incinerator being treated through a scrubber, baghouse and finally exhausted through a stack.

Figure 1: An example of an exhaust gas treatment system for a waste incinerator.

In order to be compliant for regulatory purposes, industries need appropriate pollution control technologies for example:

  • Cyclone separators – remove particulates based on inertial differences.
  • Bag houses or fabric filters – remove particles based on differences in size.
  • Wet scrubbers or spray absorbers – remove particulates and gaseous pollutants such as SOx.
  • Dry scrubbers – neutralise acidic gases
  • Afterburners or thermal incinerators – combusts volatile pollutants to form carbon dioxide and water.
  • Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) – capture particles using static electricity.
  • Mist collectors – captures pollutant droplets using filter meshes.
  • Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) \ Catalytic convertors – convert NOx to nitrogen and water.

Each of these stack treatment options is suitable for different industrial processes, and has its own benefits and costs. The flue gas properties and composition play a vital role in selecting the suitable pollution control system.

Typically these air pollution control devices (APCDs) are highly versatile and can be retrofitted to existing facility or included in a new facility. The design depends on the process conditions and pollutants in the flue gas. A good design and optimised working is crucial in achieving efficient removal of the pollutants to ensure both emission and ground level concentration criteria are achieved. Synergetics have experience identifying and optimising appropriate controls over a wide range of applications. Design tools such as CFD can be used to optimise the design and verify performance of custom devices. An efficient design also ensures minimum energy and space requirements.